Global Tipping Points is led by Professor Tim Lenton from the University of Exeter’s Global Systems Institute with the support of more than 200 researchers from over 90 organisations in 26 countries.

The Global Tipping Points Report was launched at COP28 on 6 December 2023. The report is an authoritative assessment of the risks and opportunities of both negative and positive tipping points in the Earth system and society.

Foreword by Dr. Andrew Steer, President & CEO at Bezos Earth Fund.


Summary Report

Harmful tipping points in the natural world pose some of the gravest threats faced by humanity. Their triggering will severely damage our planet’s life-support systems and threaten the stability of our societies.


This report is for all those concerned with tackling escalating Earth system change and mobilising transformative social change to alter that trajectory, achieve sustainability and promote social justice.

Section 1: Earth System Tipping Points

Section 1
Earth system tipping points

Considers Earth system tipping points. These are reviewed and assessed across the three major domains of the cryosphere, biosphere and circulation of the oceans and atmosphere.

Section 2: Tipping point impacts

Section 2
Tipping point impacts

Considers tipping point impacts. First we look at the human impacts of Earth system tipping points, then the potential couplings to negative tipping points in human systems.

Section 3: Governance of Earth System Tipping Points

Section 3
Governance of Earth system tipping points

Considers how to govern Earth system tipping points and their associated risks. We look at governance of mitigation, prevention and stabilisation then we focus on governance of impacts, including adaptation, vulnerability and loss and damage.

Section 4: Positive tipping points in technology, economy and society

Section 4
Positive tipping points in technology, economy & society

Focuses on positive tipping points in technology, the economy and society. It provides a framework for understanding and acting on positive tipping points. We highlight illustrative case studies across energy, food and transport and mobility systems, with a focus on demand-side solutions.

Global Tipping Point Pathways infographic

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Key messages


Key recommendations


Summary Report


Full Report




Section 1


Section 2


Section 3


Section 4


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